The things that occur 10 seconds before a target behavior (i.e. what occurred right before the child engaged in hand biting)
The things that occur 10 seconds or right AFTER a target behavior (i.e. what occurred right after the child engaged in hand biting)
Looking at what generally happens before a behavior of interest and right after a behavior of interest. It helps to identify why the behavior may be occurring.
An observable and measurable act an organism does from eating to yelling to jumping to aggression.
Skills assessment refers to the process of assessing your child’s skill sets in order to determine what your child has in his/her repertoire and what skills might be goal areas to target. The field of ABA has a variety of different skill assessments ranging from social skills to adaptive life skills. The assessment that is selected for your son or daughter is based on their individual skill sets and the focus of their intervention.
A treatment plan is the document that is completed and submitted to insurance providers that outlines the intervention package that will be implemented over a 6-month time frame. The treatment plan has numerous components including description of the client and the client’s skill sets, the result of a skills assessment, the results of a behavior assessment, proposed intervention strategies, proposed skill acquisition goals and parent training goals, as well as other components such as discharge criteria and transition criteria. Treatment plans are comprehensive in their description of services and approval is necessary for treatment.
Generalization refers to the extent in which a learner uses the skills taught in intervention in different settings, with different people, and across different responses.
An intervention in which an individual is taught an alternative response or what to do in place of engaging in a maladaptive behavior.
A procedure in which the conditions/variables that were found to maintain a given behavior (the reason WHY the behavior was occurring) are discontinued.
The function of the behavior refers to the conditions or variables that are maintaining a behavior (helps to explain WHY someone does what they do).
Refers to something (i.e. reward) that results in an increase of future desired behavior.
When talking about reinforcement, practitioners are referring to the process that occurs when a behavior is followed immediately by the presentation of something (i.e. reward) that makes that same behavior more likely in the future.
Board Certified Behavior Analyst is an individual who is trained to provide and supervise behavior analysis services. This person has received graduate level training in the field of Applied Behavior Analysis, completed a specified number of supervision hours under a good standing Board Certified Behavior Analyst and has passed a national certification examination. To be a BCBA, an individual must complete yearly continuing education hours and be in good standing with the Board of Behavior Analysts.
Board Certified Assistant Behavior Analyst is an individual who is trained to provide and supervise behavior analysis services UNDER the supervision of a BCBA. This person has received training in the field of Applied Behavior Analysis, completed a specified number of supervision hours under a good standing Board Certified Behavior Analyst, and has passed a national certification examination. To be a BCaBA, an individual must receive ongoing supervision from a BCBA, complete yearly continuing education hours, and be in good standing with the board.
Refers to the what an individual’s present rate of responding prior to implementation of an intervention. The purpose of baseline is to establish a present rate in order to determine if it is appropriate to implement an intervention and/or determine if an intervention is effective.
A Behavior Intervention Plan is a plan or protocol that outlines the specific steps to change target behavior(s). A BIP often includes target behavior(s) for decrease (these are behaviors in need of reduction) and target behavior(s) for increase (these are the behaviors we want to teach in place of the behavior for decrease). There are many sections to a BIP and a quality BIP should include preventative strategies, communication strategies, reinforcement strategies, and consequence strategies. Caregiver and client consent should be obtained before implementing a BIP.
A Functional Behavior Assessment is the process in which practitioners formulate a hypothesis in relation to why a target behavior may be occurring. The process includes identifying what the target behavior is, identifying the situations in which the behavior will and will not occur, and formulating a hypothesis about why the behavior occurs. These things are done through a variety of indirect or direct measures such as caregiver interview, direct observation, and data collection. The goal of the FBA is to help practitioners understand what an individual may be communicating when they engage in a target behavior so they can develop a BIP to help the individual communicate their needs and wants.
This is the process in which practitioners test their hypothesis in relation to why a target behavior may be occurring. During an FA, multiple different conditions are alternated in order to see what specific conditions corresponded to the target behavior. This helps practitioners to identify specifically what an individual is trying to communicate in order to best assist them in getting their needs and wants met.
Discrete Trial Training is one tool in the ABA tool box. Discrete Trial Training includes breaking more complex skills into smaller more discrete steps and teaching each skill in a strategic manner. Discrete Trial Training is commonly assumed to by synonymous with ABA, this is a misconception. DTT is one tool in the ABA tool box and should only be a small portion of a comprehensive treatment package and only for individuals who would benefit from its methodology.
Techniques used to provide instruction or teach skills in a naturalistic environment under naturalistic opportunities. During naturalistic teaching approaches, practitioners follow the motivation of the student and create learning opportunities based on the child’s interest and/or motivation. These approaches are beneficial for children that have little exposure to structured techniques (i.e. school) and/or have barrier skills related to following directions.
Natural Environment Teaching (NET) is another tool in the ABA tool box. NET is a teaching strategy that focuses on teaching different types of verbal behavior (i.e. requests, labels, conversation skills, imitation, echoing, and following directions) within a natural context. During a NET session, practitioners follow the child’s lead and utilize their motivation to target a skill. Compared to DTT, NET involves the child dictating what items are used and teaching trials are varied frequently based on the child’s interest and motivation.
Incidental teaching is another tool in the ABA tool box. Incidental teaching is a strategy that focuses on increasing an individual’s complexity of spoken language. During incidental teaching, a practitioner sets up a motivating environment and waits for the child to initiate or show motivation. Once the child imitates, the practitioner uses that imitation as an incident to teach more complex language (i.e. child reaches for milk when eating cereal and practitioner works on “pour milk”). Compared to DTT, incidental teaching is completed in the natural environment and is specific to a child’s motivation and initiations.
A Registered Behavior Technician or RBT is an individual that has received credentials offered by the Behavior Analyst Certification Board (BACB). An RBT has completed 40 hours of classroom training specific to the field of ABA, have passed a comprehensive competency examination administered directly from a BCBA, and have passed a national certification examination. An RBT must be supervised by a BCBA for 5% of all service delivery time and be in good standing with the board.